Memoir Putera Lapis Mahang

Memoir Putera Lapis Mahang

Sunday, June 21, 2015



SYUKUR alhamdulillah, PADA tanggal 1 Ramadhan 1436 bersamaan dengan 18 Jun 2015, anakandaku yang kedua Nur Fairiz Fazeera telah selamat melahirkan cahaya mata ketiganya, seorang puteri di Hospital Ampang Puteri pada jam 0940H.


Ini adalah cucundaku yang ke 6.

Daripada 6 cucu ini, seorang telah berpindah menetap di syurga ketika berusia 9 bulan, akibat kemalangan jalan raya. Wafa Firdaus binti Muhammad Hafeez Firdaus telah meninggal dunia pada 9 Jun 2013.

Berikut adalah 5 cucu-cucuku yang terdahulu:

  1. Muhammad Aqeef Waqas bin Mohd Farihan dilahirkan pada hari Isnin, 26 Zulqaedah 1432 bersamaan 24 Oktober 2011.
  2. Wafa Firdaus binti Muhammad Hafeez Firdaus dilahirkan pada hari Rabu, 4 Syawal 1433 bersamaan dengan 22 Ogos 2012.
  3. Auny Humayra binti Muhammad Nor Hafiz dilahirkan pada hari Sabtu 11 Muharram 1434 bersamaan dengan 24 November 2012. Meninggal dunia pada hari  9 Jun 2013.
  4. Muhammad Aariq Waqas bin Mohd Farihan dilahirkan pada hari Jumaat 23 Zulqaedah 1434 bersamaan 27 September 2013.
  5. Sayf bin Muhammad Hafeez Firdaus dilahirkan pada hari Ahad, 28 Rabiul Awal 1436 bersamaan 18 Januari 2015.

Friday, January 23, 2015


Pada hari ini,23 Januari 2015, kira-kira jam 0100H, Raja Arab Saudi, Al Malik Abdullah bin Saud telah kembali ke rahmatullah.

Saudi Arabia state television has announced that King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al Saud has died at the age of 90 after battling pneumonia.

He was the kingdom’s sixth absolute monarch and head of the ruling House of Saud monarchy for nearly a decade. Abudllah bin Abdulaziz al Saud’s younger brother, Crown Prince Salman bin Adbel Aziz, ascended to the throne and will now take over as the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. 

Though Abdullah only officially took the throne in 2005, he had acted as ruling monarch for nearly a decade after his half-brother King Fahd Abdel Aziz suffered a debilitating stroke. Between his official and de facto years on the throne, Abdullah ruled Saudi Arabia during the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the Arab Spring and rise of the Islamic State group.

King Abdullah was often regarded as a reformer, compared to the previous Saudi Arabian conservative leaders and constituents.

Apabila membaca berita ini pada pagi ini, aku terpanggil untuk menulis sedikit berkaitan dengan Pemerintahan Kerajaan Arab Saudi ini.

Let's me do some internet search to find some information about the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The Foundation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area (approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula), and the second-largest in the Arab world after Algeria. It is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, and Yemen in the south. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast and much of its terrain consists of inhospitable desert.

Before the inception of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, modern-day Saudi Arabia consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Hasa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. The country has since been an absolute monarchy governed along Islamic lines, namely under the influence of Wahhabism. Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam. The Kingdom has the total population of 28.7 million; 20 million Saudi nationals and 8 million foreigners.\

Saudi Arabia is the world's dominant oil producer and exporter while it controls the world's second largest hydrocarbon reserves. Backed by the energy reserves, the kingdom is categorized as a high income economy and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. Saudi Arabia has the least diversified economy in the GCC. Saudi Arabia has a high Human Development Index (HDI). Saudi Arabia is ruled by an "authoritarian regime" and is ranked as "Not Free" by Freedom House. It also has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world. It is an active member of Gulf Cooperation Council, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC.

Before the foundation of Saudi Arabia

Arabian Peninsular in 1914

In pre-Islamic times, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements (such as Mecca and Medina), most of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic tribal societies in the inhospitable desert. The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, was born in Mecca in about 571 A.D. In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. In so doing, Arabia soon became a politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the more developed conquered lands. From the 10th century to the early 20th century Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca, but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad, Cairo or Istanbul. Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule.

In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Hasa) to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. One reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea (hence the Hejaz) and the Indian Ocean. Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority. The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family, known as the Al Saud, began in Nejd in central Arabia in 1744, when Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, founder of the Wahhabi movement, a strict puritanical form of Sunni Islam. This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today. The first "Saudi state" established in 1744 in the area around Riyadh, rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha. A much smaller second "Saudi state", located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid. By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait where the younger son of Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud; Prince Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was greeted during the reign of Abdullah II Sabah II Al-Jaber I Al-Sabah.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers, with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz. In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul Aziz - later to be known as Ibn Saud - recaptured control of Riyadh in Nejd during the reign of Mubarak Sabah II Al-Jaber I Al-Sabah bringing the Al Saud back to Nejd. Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan, a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912. With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Hasa from the Ottomans in 1913.

In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state. Although the Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed in its objective, the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia.

Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title Sultan of Nejd in 1921. With the help of the Ikhwan, the Hejaz was conquered in 1924–25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of the Hejaz. A year later, he added the title of King of Nejd. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units.

After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. This met with Ibn Saud's opposition, as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. At the same time, the Ikhwan became disenchanted with Ibn Saud's domestic policies which appeared to favor modernization and the increase in the number of non-Muslim foreigners in the country. As a result, they turned against Ibn Saud and, after a two-year struggle, were defeated in 1930 at the Battle of Sabilla, where their leaders were massacred. In 1932 the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Politic and Government

Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. However, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Islamic law and the Quran, while the Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution No political parties or national elections are permitted. The Economist rates the Saudi government as the fifth most authoritarian government out of 167 rated in its 2012 Democracy Index, and Freedom House gives it its lowest "Not Free" rating, 7.0 ("1=best, 7=worst") for 2013.

In the absence of national elections and political parties, politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family, the Al Saud, and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society. Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. This process is not reported by the Saudi media.

By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events. As mentioned earlier, in recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003.

The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority—particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz). Of these, the Islamic activists have been the most prominent threat to the government and have in recent years perpetrated a number of violent or terrorist acts in the country. However, open protest against the government, even if peaceful, is not tolerated.

Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world which bans women from driving. On 25 September 2011, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah has announced that women will have the right to stand and vote in future local elections and join the advisory Shura council as full members.

Administrative divisions

Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces. The provinces are further divided into 118 governorates     (منطقة إدارية,). This number includes the 13 provincial capitals, which have a different status as municipalities (amanah) headed by mayors (amin). The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates.

1Al Jawf (or Jouf)Sakaka City
2Northern Borders (Al Hudud as Syamaliyah)Arar
3TabukTabuk City
4Ha'ilHa'il City
5Al MadinahMedina
6Al QasimBuraidah
8Al RiyadhRiyadh City
9Eastern Province (AsSyarqiyah)Dammam
10Al Bahah (or Baha)Al Bahah City
12JizanJizan City
13NajranNajran City

Monarchy System in Saudi Arabia 

The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's head of state and absolute monarch (i.e. head of government). He serves as the head of the Saudi monarchy — House of Saud. The King is called the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (خادم الحرمين الشريفين). The title, which signifies Saudi Arabia's jurisdiction over the mosques of Masjid al Haram in Mecca and Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina, replaced His Majesty (صاحب الجلالة) in 1986.

King Abdelaziz (also known as Ibn Saud) began conquering today's Saudi Arabia in 1902, by restoring his family as emirs of Riyadh. He then proceeded to conquer first the Nejd (1922) and then the Hijazz (1925). He progressed from Sultan of Nejd, to King of Hejaz and Nejd, and finally to King of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

The Kings since Ibn Saud's death have all been his sons, and all likely immediate successors to the reigning King Abdullah will be from his progeny. Sons of Ibn Saud are considered to have primary claim on the throne of Saudi Arabia. This makes the Saudi monarchy quite distinct from Western monarchies, which usually feature large, clearly defined royal familiesand orders of succession.

Saudi Arabia is ruled by Islamic Law and purports to be an Islamic State, but many Muslims see a hereditary monarchy as being a discouraged system of government in Islam.

The King of Saudi Arabia is also considered the Head of the House of Saud and Prime Minister. The Crown Prince is also the Deputy Prime Minister. The kings after Faisal have named a "second Deputy Prime Minister" as the subsequent heir after the Crown Prince.

The Founder of the Monarch of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abdulaziz (Arabic: عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود‎, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz ibn ‘Abd ar-Raḥman Āl Sa‘ūd; 15 January 1876 – 9 November 1953), usually known outside the Arab world as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia, the third Saudi State.

He reconquered his family's ancestral home city of Riyadh in 1902, touching off three decades of conquests that left him the ruler of nearly all of central Arabia. He consolidated his control over the Najd in 1922, then conquered the Hijaz in 1925. He united his dominions into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. As King, he presided over the discovery of petroleum in Saudi Arabia in 1938 and the beginning of large-scale oil production after World War II. He fathered many children, including 45 sons, and all of the subsequent kings of Saudi Arabia.

Early Life and Family Origins.

Abdulaziz ibn Saud was born on 15 January 1876 in Riyadh in the region of Najd in central Arabia. He was the son of Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, last ruler of the "Second Saudi State", a tribal sheikhdom centered on Riyadh. His family, the House of Saud, had been a power in central Arabia for the previous 130 years. Under the influence and inspiration of Wahhabi Islam, the Saudis had previously attempted to control much of the Arabian peninsula in the form of the "First Saudi State", until its destruction by an Egyptian army in the early 19th century. The mother of Abdulaziz inn Saud was a Sudairi, Sarah Al Sudairi, and died in 1910.

In 1890, the House of Saud's long-term regional rivals, the Al Rashid, conquered Riyadh. Abdulaziz was 15 at the time. He and his family initially took refuge with the Al Murrah, a Bedouin tribe in the southern desert of Arabia. Later, the Al Sauds moved to Qatar and stayed there for two months. Their next stop was Bahrain, where they stayed briefly. Their final destination was Kuwait, where they lived for nearly a decade.

In the spring of 1901, Abdulaziz and some relatives – including a half-brother, Mohammed, and several cousins – set out on a raiding expedition into the Najd, targeting for the most part tribes associated with the Rashidis. As the raid proved profitable, it attracted more participants. The raiders' numbers peaked at over 200, though these numbers dwindled over the ensuing months.

In the autumn, the group made camp in the Yabrin oasis. While observing Ramadan, he decided to attack Riyadh and retake it from the Al Rashidi. On the night of 15 January 1902, he led 40 men over the walls of the city on tilted palm trees and took the city. The Rashidi governor of the city, Ajlan, was killed in front of his own fortress. The Saudi recapture of the city marked the beginning of the Third Saudi State.

Rise to Power

Following the capture of Riyadh, many former supporters of the House of Saud rallied to Ibn Saud's call to arms. He was a charismatic leader and kept his men supplied with arms. Over the next two years, he and his forces recaptured almost half of the Najd from the Rashidis.

In 1904, Ibn Rashid appealed to the Ottoman Empire for military protection and assistance. The Ottomans responded by sending troops into Arabia. On 15 June 1904, Ibn Saud's forces suffered a major defeat at the hands of the combined Ottoman and Rashidi forces. His forces regrouped and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Ottomans. Over the next two years he was able to disrupt their supply routes, forcing them to retreat.

He completed his conquest of the Najd and the eastern coast of Arabia in 1912. He then founded the Ikhwan, a military-religious brotherhood which was to assist in his later conquests, with the approval of local Salafi ulema. In the same year, he instituted an agrarian policy to settle the nomadic pastoralist bedouins into colonies, and to dismantle their tribal organizations in favor of allegiance to the Ikhwan.

During World War I, the British government established diplomatic relations with Ibn Saud. The British agent, Captain William Shakespear, was well received by the Bedouin.  Similar diplomatic missions were established with any Arabian power who might have been able to unify and stabilize the region. The British entered into a treaty in December 1915 (the "Treaty of Darin") which made the lands of the House of Saud a British protectorate and attempted to define the boundaries of the developing Saudi state. In exchange, Ibn Saud pledged to again make war against Ibn Rashid, who was an ally of the Ottomans.

The British Foreign Office had previously begun to support Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of the Hejaz by sending T.E. Lawrence (a.k.a. Lawrence of Arabia) to him in 1915. The Saudi Ikhwan began to conflict with Emir Feisal also in 1917 just as his sons Abdullah and Faisal entered Damascus. The Treaty of Darin remained in effect until superseded by the Jeddah conference of 1927 and the Dammam conference of 1952 during both of which Ibn Saud extended his boundaries past the Anglo-Ottoman Blue Line. After Darin, he stockpiled the weapons and supplies which the British provided him, including a 'tribute' of £5,000 per month. After World War I, he received further support from the British, including a glut of surplus munitions. He launched his campaign against the Al Rashidi in 1920; by 1922 they had been all but destroyed.

The defeat of the Al Rashidi doubled the size of Saudi territory because after the war of Ha'il, king Abdulaziz sent his army to occupy Al-Jouf and the army led by Eqab bin Mohaya (The head of Talhah tribe) . This allowed Ibn Saud the leverage to negotiate a new and more favorable treaty with the British. Their treaty, signed at Uqair in 1922, saw Britain recognize many of his territorial gains. In exchange, Ibn Saud agreed to recognize British territories in the area, particularly along the Persian Gulf coast and in Iraq. The former of these were vital to the British, as merchant traffic between British India and United Kingdom depended upon coaling stations on the approach to the Suez Canal.

In 1925, the forces of Ibn Saud captured the holy city of Mecca from Sharif Hussein bin Ali, ending 700 years of (Hashemite) rule. On 8 January 1926, the leading figures in Mecca, Madina and Jeddah proclaimed Ibn Saud the King of Hejaz. On 20 May 1927, the British government signed the Treaty of Jeddah, which abolished the Darin protection agreement and recognized the independence of the Hejaz and Najd with Ibn Saud as its ruler.

With international recognition and support, Ibn Saud continued to consolidate his power. By 1928, his forces had overrun most of the central Arabian Peninsula. However, the alliance between the Ikhwan and the Al Saud collapsed when Ibn Saud forbade further raiding. The few portions of central Arabia not under Saudi control had treaties with London. This did not sit well with the Ikwhan, who had been taught that all non-Wahhabis were infidels. Tensions finally boiled over when the Ikwhan rebelled in 1927. After two years of fighting, they were suppressed by Ibn Saud in the Battle of Sabilla in March 1929.

On 23 September 1932, Ibn Saud united his dominions into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with himself as its king. He transferred his court to Murabba Palace from the Masmak Fort in 1938 and the palace remained his residence and the seat of government until his death in 1953.

Ibn Saud had to first eliminate the right of his own father in order to rule, and then distance and contain the ambitions of his five brothers – particularly his oldest brother Muhammad who fought with him during the battles and conquests that had given birth to the state.

Oil and the Rule of Ibn Saud

Petroleum was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1938 by American geologists working for Standard Oil of New York (SOCONY) in partnership with Saudi officials. Through his advisers St John Philby and Ameen Rihani. He granted substantial authority over Saudi oil fields to American Oil Companies (ARAMCO) in 1944, much to the dismay of the British who had invested heavily in the House of Saud's rise to power in hopes of open access to any oil reserves that were to be surveyed. Beginning in 1915, Ibn Saud signed the "friendship and cooperation" pact with Britain to keep his militia in line and cease any further attacks against their protectorates for whom they were responsible.

His newfound oil wealth brought with it a great deal of power and influence that, naturally, Ibn Saud would use to advantage in the Hijaz. He forced many nomadic tribes to settle down and abandon "petty wars" and vendettas. He also began widespread enforcement of the new kingdom's ideology, based on the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab. This included an end to traditionally sanctioned rites of pilgrimage, recognized by the orthodox schools of jurisprudence, but at odds with those sanctioned by Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab. In 1926, after a caravan of Egyptians on the way to Mecca were beaten by his forces for playing bugles, he was impelled to issue a conciliatory statement to the Egyptian government. In fact, several such statements were issued to Muslim governments around the world as a result of beatings suffered by the pilgrims visiting the holy cities of Mekkah and Medinah. With the uprising and subsequent decimation thereafter of the Ikhwan in 1929 via British air power, the 1930s marked a turning point. With his rivals eliminated, Ibn Saud's ideology was in full force, ending nearly 1400 years of accepted religious practices surrounding the Hajj, the majority of which were sanctioned by a millennia of scholarship.

Abdulaziz established a Shura Council of the Hijaz as early as 1927. This Council was later expanded to 20 members, and was chaired by the king's son, Faisal.

Foreign Wars

Ibn Saud was able to gain loyalty from tribes near Saudi Arabia, tribes such as those in Jordan. For example, he built very strong ties with Prince Sheikh Rashed Al Khuzai from the Al Fraihat tribe, one of the most influential and royally established families during the Ottoman Empire. The Prince and his tribe had dominated eastern Jordan before the arrival of Shariff Hussein. Ibn Saud supported Prince Rashed and his followers in rebellion against the Hussein.

Prince Rashed supported Izzaddin al Qasim's defiance in 1935 which led him and his followers in rebellion against King Abdullah of Jordan. And later in 1937, when they were forced to leave Jordan, Prince Rashed Al Khuzai, his family, and a group of his followers chose to move to Saudi Arabia, where Prince Rashedi was living for several years in the hospitality of King Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Ibn Saud positioned Saudi Arabia as neutral in World War II, but was generally considered to favor the Allies. However, in 1938, when an attack on a main British pipeline in the Kingdom of Iraq was found to be connected to the German Ambassador, Fritz Grobba, Ibn Saud provided Grobba with refuge. It was reported that he had been disfavoring the British as of 1937.

At the last stage of the war, Ibn Saud met significant political figures. One of these meetings, which lasted for three days, was with the U.S. President F D Roosevelt on 14 February 1945. The meeting took place on board of the USS Quincy at the Great Bitter Lake in the Suez Canal. The meeting laid down the basis of the future relations between two countries.

The other meeting was with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the Grand Hotel du Lac on the shores of the Fayyoun Oasis, fifty miles south of Cairo. in February 1945. However, Saudis report that the meeting heavily focused on the Palestine problem and was unproductive in terms of its outcomes, in contrast to that with Roosevelt.

In 1948, Ibn Saud participated in the Arab-Israeli War but Saudi Arabia's contribution was generally considered token.

While the members of the royal family desired luxuries such as gardens, splendid cars and concrete palaces, Ibn Saud wanted a royal railway from the Persian Gulf to Riyadh and then an extension to Jeddah. This was regarded by all of his advisers living in the country as an old man's folly. Eventually, ARAMCO built the railway, at a cost of $70 million, drawn from the King's oil royalties. It was completed in 1951 and was used commercially after the king's death. It enabled Riyadh to grow into a relatively modern city. But when a paved road was built in 1962, the railway lost its traffic.


Al Malik Abdul Aziz bin AbdurRahman (or Ibn Saud)
(22 Sep 1932 – 9 Nov 1953)

15 Jan 1876 (Riyadh)

Full Name
Abdulaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud

Name of Wives (22 +)
1. Wadhah Bint Muhammad Bin 'Aqab; 2. Tarfah bint Abdullah Al Al Sheikh; 3. Lulua bint Salih Al Dakhil; 4. Al Jawhara bint Musaed Al Jiluwi; 5. Lajah bint Khalid bin Hithlayn; 6. Bazza I;
7. Jawhara bint Saad  as Sudairi; 8. Hassa Al Sudairi; 9. Shahida; 10. Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim; 11. Bazza II; 12. Haya bint Sa'ad Al Sudair; 13. Bushra; 14. Munaiyir; 15. Mudhi;
16. Nouf bint Al Shalan; 17. Saida al Yamaniyah; 18. Khadra; 19. Baraka al Yamaniyah; 20. Futayma; 21. Mudhi binti Abdullah Almandeel Al Khalidi; and others

Name of  Children (45 sons ++daughters)
1. Turki; 2. Saud (2nd King); 3. Faisal (3rd King); 4. Muhammad; 5. Khaled (4th King); 6. Nasser; 7. Saad; 8. Saad; 9. Mansour; 10. Fahd (5th King); 
11. Bandr; 12. Musaid; 13. Abdullah (6th King); 14. Abdul Muhsin; 15. Mishail; 16. Sultan; 17. AbdurRahman; 18. Mutaib;  19. Talal; 20. Mishari; 22. Badr; 23. Turki; 24. Nawwaf; 25. Nayef; 26. Fawwaz; 27. Salman (7th King); 28. Majid; 29. Thamir; 30. Abdul Illah; 31. Mamdouh; 32. Sattam; 33. Ahmed; 34. Abdul Majeed; 35. Hazloul; 36. Masshur; 37. Muqrin (Crown Prince); 38. Hamoud....and others. Princess; al Bandari; Sultana; Lu'luah; al Jawhara; Haya; Seeta; Latifa and others.

9 Nov 1953 (Taif)/al Oud, Riyadh

Al Malik Saud bin Abdel Aziz
(9 Nov 1953 - 2 Nov 1964)
(abdicated by his brother, Feisal)

15 Jan 1902 (Kuwait City)

Full Name
Saud bin Abdulaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud

Name of Wives (22 +)
1. Wadhah Bint Muhammad Bin 'Aqab; 2. .....

Name of  Children (115)
Prince Fahd; Prince Muhammad; Prince Mishari; Prince Mishaal; Prince Abdurrahman, Prince Badr, Prince Hussam; Prince Khalid; Prince Sultan; Prince Mansour; Prince Masshoor; Princess Hajr; Princess Noura; Princess Hessah, Princess Buniah; Princess Nouzhah + + + ... and Princess Basmah

23 Feb 1969 (Athen, Greece)/al Oud, Riyadh

Struggle with Faisal

A fierce struggle between Ibn Saud's most senior sons, Saud and Faisal, erupted immediately after his death. The increase in oil revenues did not solve the financial problem associated with the debts Saud had inherited from his father, estimated to have been $US200 million in 1953. In fact, this debt more than doubled by 1958, when it reached $US450 million. The Saudi Riyal lost half of its official value against the United States Dollar. Both ARAMCO and international banks declined Saudi's demand for credit. Saud suspended the few government projects he had initiated, but continued his spending on luxurious palaces.

Saud and Faisal fought an internal battle over the definition of political responsibilities and the division of government functions. Saud is often associated among other things with plundering of oil revenues, luxurious palaces, and conspiracy inside and outside of Saudi Arabia while Faisal is associated with sobriety, piety, puritanism, financial wisdom, and modernization. Moreover, the conflict between the two brothers is often described as originating from the desire of Faisal to curb his brother's spending and solve Saudi Arabia's financial crisis

The battle between the two brothers was fought over the role to be assigned to the Council of Ministers. Saud abolished the office of Prime Minister by royal decree, thus enforcing his position as King and de facto prime minister. Saud thought of himself as both King and prime minister whereas Faisal envisaged more powers being in his own hand as Crown Prince and deputy prime minister.

Forced Abdication

King Saud's family members worried about Saud's profligacy and his inability to meet Nasser's socialist challenge. Corruption and backwardness were weakening the regime. Radio Cairo's anti-Saudi propaganda was finding a receptive audience.

King Saud and Prince Faisal continued their power struggle until 1962, when Prince Faisal formed a cabinet in the absence of the King, who had gone abroad for medical treatment. Prince Faisal allied with Prince Fahd and Prince Sultan. Prince Faisal's new government excluded the sons of Saud. He promised a ten-point reform that included the drafting of a basic law, the abolition of slavery and the establishment of a judicial council.

King Saud rejected Prince Faisal's new arrangement and threatened to mobilize the Royal Guard against his brother. Prince Faisal ordered the mobilization of the National Guard against King Saud. With the arbitration of the ulema and pressure from senior royalty, King Saud yielded and agreed to abdicate on 28 March 1964.

King Saud was forced into exile in Geneva, Switzerland, and then on to other European cities. In 1966, Saud was invited by Nasser to live in Egypt; another report claims that King Saud went to Egypt under refuge granted by Nasser and stayed there from 1965 to 1967. King Saud was also allowed to broadcast propaganda on Radio Cairo. Some of his sons, such as Prince Khalid, Prince Badr, Prince Sultan and Prince Mansur, joined him and supported his attempt to regain the throne. However, after the June 1967 Arab-Israel War, he lost the support of Egypt and settled in Greece until his death in1969.

Al Malik Faisal bin Abdel Aziz
(2 Nov 1964 - 25 Mac 1975)

April 1906 (Riyadh)

Full Name
Faisal bin Abdulaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud

Name of Wives (22 +)
1. Al Jawhara binti Saud al Kabir; 2. Haya binti Turki al Turki; 3. Iffat al Thunayan
Name of  Children (45 sons ++daughters)
1. Abdullah (S); 2. Sara (D); 3. Lu'lu'ah (D); 4. Khalid (S); 5. Saud (S); 6. Sa'd (S); 7. AbdurRahman (S): 8. Bandar (S); 9. Latifa (D); 10. Munira (D); 11. alJuhara (D); 12. al Anud (D); 13. Mishail (D); 14. Fahda (D); 15. Nura (D); 16. Turki (S):  17. Haifa (D); 18. Hessa.

25 Mac 1975 (Riyadh)/al Oud, Riyadh


On 25 March 1975, King Faisal was shot point-blank and killed by his half-brother's son, Faisal bin Musaid, who had just come back from the United States. The murder occurred at a majlis (literally ‘a place for sitting’), an event where the king or leader opens up his residence to the citizens to enter and petition the king.

In the waiting room, Prince Faisal talked to Kuwaiti representatives who were also waiting to meet King Faisal.[64] When the Prince went to embrace him, King Faisal leaned to kiss his nephew in accordance with Saudi culture. At that instant, Prince Faisal took out a pistol and shot him. The first shot hit King Faisal's chin and the second one went through his ear.[64] A bodyguard hit Prince Faisal with a sheathed sword. Oil minister Zaki Yamani yelled repeatedly to not kill Prince Faisal.

King Faisal was quickly taken to the hospital.[64] He was still alive as doctors massaged his heart and gave him a blood transfusion. They were unsuccessful and King Faisal died shortly afterward. Both before and after the assassination the prince was reported to be calm. Following the killing, Riyadh had three days of mourning and all government activities were at a standstill.

One theory for the murder was avenging the death of Prince Khaled bin Musaid, the brother of Prince Faisal bin Musaid. King Faisal instituted modern and secular reforms that led to the installation of television, which provoked violent protest, one which was led by Prince Khalid, who during the course of an attack on a television station was shot dead by a policeman.

Prince Faisal, who was captured directly after the attack, was officially declared insane. But following the trial, a panel of Saudi medical experts decided that Faisal was sane when he shot the king. The nation's high religious court convicted him of regicide and sentenced him to execution. He was beheaded in the public square in Riyadh. The public execution took place on 18 June 1975 at 4:30 pm—three hours before sundown—before a throng of thousands at the Al Hukm Palace (Palace of Justice).

King Faisal's body was buried in Al Oud cemetery in Riyadh on 26 March 1975. His successor, King Khalid, wept over his body at his funeral.

Al Malik Khaled bin Abdel Aziz
(25 Mac 1975 - 13 Jun 1982)

13 Feb 1913 (Riyadh)

Full Name
Khaled bin Abdulaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud

Name of Wives (4)
1. Latifa binti Ahmed al Sudairi, 2. Tarfa binti Abdullah al Saud, 3. Nura binti Turki al Saud, 4. Sita binti Fahd al Damir

Name of  Children (4 sons /6 daughters)
1. Bandar, Abdullah, Faisal, Moudi, Hussa etc
13 Jun 1982 (Taif)/al Oud, Riyadh

Al Malik Fahd bin Abdulaziz
(13 Jun 1982 - 1 Ogos 2005)

16 Mac 1921 (Riyadh)

Full Name
Fahd bin Abdulaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud
Name of Wives (12 +)
1. Al Anood bint Abdulaziz bin Mousad Al Saud; 2. al Jawhara bint Ibrahim; 3. Jawza bint Abdallah bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud; 4. Al Jowhara bint Abdullah Al Sudairi; 5. Modhi bint Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud ; 6. Joza'a bint Sultan Al Adgham Al Subaie; 7. Turfa bint Abdulaziz bin Mo'amar; 8. Watfa bint Obaid bin Ali Al Jabr Al Rasheed; 9. Lolwa al Abdulrahman al Muhana Aba al Khail; 10. Shaikha bint Turki bin Mariq Al Thit; 11. Seeta bint Ghunaim bin Sunaitan Abu Thnain; 12. Janan Harb...etc

Name of  Children (6 +)

1. Faisal; 2. Khaled; 3. Muhammad ; 4. Saud; 5. Sultan; 6. Abdulaziz; etc 

2 Ogos 2005 (Riyadh)/al Oud, Riyadh

Al Malik Abdullah bin Abdulaziz
(Regent: 21 February 1996 – 1 August 2005)
(1 August 2005 – 22 January 2015)

1 Ogos 1924 (Riyadh, Nejd)

Full Name
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud

Name of Wives (22 +)
1. Alanoud Al Fayez, 2. Jawahir bint Ali Hussein, 3. Aida Fustuq, 4. Munira Al Otaishan,
5. Munira bint Abdullah Al Al Shaykh, 6. Tathi bint Mishan al Faisal al Jarba and more

Name of  Children (45 sons ++daughters)
1. Prince Khaled, 2. Prince Mutaib, Prince Mishaal, Prince Abdulaziz, Prince Turki, Prince Badr, Princess Nora, Princess Aliya, Princess Adila, Princess Maryam, Princess Sahab, Princess Sahar, Princess Maha, Princess Hala, Princess Jawahir, Princess Anoud, Prince Saud, Prince Bandar

22 Jan 2015 (Riyadh)/al Oud, Riyadh

Salman bin Abdull aziz December 9, 2013.jpg
Al Malik Salman bin Abdulaziz
(23 Jan 2015 - incumbent)

31 Dec 1935 (Riyadh)

Full Name
Salman bin Abdelaziz bin AbdurRahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud

Name of Wives (3)
1. Sultana binti Turki al Sudairi; 2. Sarah binti Faisal al Subaiie; 3. Fahda binti Falah bin Sultan al Hithalayn. 

Name of  Children (7 sons + 1 daughter)
1. Fahd, 2. Ahmad; 3. Sultan; 4. Abdelziz; 5. Feisal; 6. Hussna; 7. Saud; 8. Muhammad

 Biodata of  Al Malik Salman bin Abdelaziz 

Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was born on 31 December 1935) is the present King of Saudi Arabia. He has also been Minister of Defence since 2011, and he was Governor of Riyadh Province from 1963 to 2011. He is a member of the House of Saud. King Salman ascended the throne on 23 January 2015 on the death of King Abdullah, his half-brother.

Salman was born on 31 December 1935. He is reported to be the 25th son of Ibn Saud. His mother was Hassa as Sudairi. Therefore, Salman is a member of the Sudairi. He was raised in Murabba Palace. 

Salman received his early education in the Princes' School in Riyadh which was established by Ibn Saud to provide education for his children. He studied religion and modern science.

Salman's governmental experience dates back to the 1950s. King Abdelaziz appointed Prince Salman as his representative and the emir or mayor of Riyadh on 17 March 1954, when he was just nineteen ears old. Later, he was appointed by King Saud as mayor of Riyadh at the rank of minister on 19 April 1955. He resigned from his post on 25 December 1960.

Governor of Riyadh

Salman bin Abdulaziz was appointed governor of Riyadh on 4 February 1963. His tenure lasted for forty-eight years from 1963 to 2011. As governor, he contributed to the development of Riyadh from a mid-sized town into a major urban metropolis. He attracted tourism, capital projects, and foreign investment inside his country. He favored geopolitical and economic relationships with the West.

He was advised by young well-qualified technocrats recruited from King Saud University during his governorship. In January 2011, he ordered action against Riyadh beggars "who try to take advantage of the generosity of people". All foreign beggars were deported and Saudi beggars were placed in a rehabilitation program by the Ministry of Social Affairs.

Defence Minister

On 5 November 2011, Prince Salman was appointed Minister of Defence, replacing his full brother late Crown Prince Sultan, and late Prince Sattam was named as the governor of the Riyadh Province. Prince Salman was also named as a member of the National Security Council (NSC) on the same day.

It is speculated that his appointment as defence minister occurred due to his qualities. First, he has a conciliatory and diplomatic nature. It is well known that he actively deals with internal family problems and mediates disputes between family members. Second, Prince Salman belongs to the middle generation in the royal family; therefore, he could develop close ties with both generations socially and culturally. Last, as a result of his long-term governorship, he developed a network of relationships within Arab and international circles.

Crown Prince

The Royal Court announced on 27 August 2012 that Prince Salman was in charge of state affairs since King Abdullah was out of the country due to a personal holiday. Prince Salman launched a Twitter account on 23 February 2013. On 18 June 2012, Prince Salman was appointed as Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia shortly after the death of his brother, Crown Prince Nayef bin Abdelaziz. Prince Salman was also made deputy prime minister.

King of the Kingdom

Salman became King of Saudi Arabia on 23 January 2015, following the death of his brother Abdullah.

Prince Salman heads the family council, called The Descendants’ Council (Majlis al Uthra in Arabic), that was established by King Fahd in 2000 to solve family matters, realizing consensus and to reduce publically embarrassing behaviour of some family members. He is also the chairman of the following organizations: King Abdulaziz Foundation for Research and Archives (KAFRA), King Abdulaziz Museum, the Prince Salman Center for Disability Research (PSCDR) and the Prince Fahd bin Salman Charitable Society for the Care of Kidney Patients. In September 2012, Prince Salman was named as the deputy chairman of the military service council. He is a strong advocate for philanthropy in poor Muslim nations such as Somalia, Sudan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. His financial support to Bosnia also contributed to radical Islamists in the region.


King Salman is well regarded as intelligent and hard-working. He is a trusted mediator in settling royal conflicts among the extended Al Saud – estimated at 4,000 princes. His administration of Riyadh Province was reportedly corruption-free. He is a prominent figure of the royal council, which allows him to select which princes will be delegated which responsibilities of the Kingdom.

King Salman and his family own a media group, including pan-Arab daily Asharq al Awsat and Al Iqtisadiah. Though he owns only 10% of the Saudi Research and Marketing Group (SRMG), he is often referred by auditors as its owner. He reportedly controls the organization through his son Prince Feisal, who was the chairman. The SRMG publishes such daily papers as Arab News, Asharq al Awsat and al Iqtisadiyah through its subsidiary Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC).

In a similar vein, Prince Salman is reported to have some strong alliances with significant journalists. He is said to be close to al Arabiyya TV director and Asharq al Awsat journalist Abdelrahman Al Rashid and to Uthman al Umeir, who launched and is the owner of the liberal e-newspaper Ilaph. Prince Salman is thought to have connections with the Elaph website.

In November 2002, in reference to charitable organizations accused of terrorism, Prince Salman He stated that he had personally taken part in the activities of such organizations, but added "I know the assistance goes to doing good. But if there are those who change some work of charity into evil activities, then it is not the kingdom's responsibility, nor its people, which helps its Arab and Muslim brothers around the world."

Al Jazeera referred to Prince Salman's views reported in a 2007 US diplomatic cable. Salman said that "the pace and extent of reforms depend on social and cultural factors, ... that for social reasons—not [religious] reasons—reforms cannot be imposed by the [Saudi government] or there will be negative reactions, ... [and] that changes have to be introduced in a sensitive and timely manner." According to the cable, he said that "democracy should not be imposed" in Saudi Arabia, since the country "is composed of tribes and regions and if democracy were imposed, each tribe and region would have its political party."

Personal life

Salman bin Abdulaziz married three times. He firstly married Sultana bint Turki Al Sudairi, who died at the age of 71 in late July 2011. She was a daughter of Prince Salman's maternal uncle, Turki bin Ahmad Al Sudairi, who was one of the former governors of  Asir Province. Sultana Al Sudairi supported the Prince Fahd bin Salman Charitable Society for the Care of Kidney Patients and other charitable organizations in the country. His children from this marriage are Prince Fahd, Prince Ahmed, Prince Sultan, Prince Abdelaziz, Prince Feisal and Princess Hussa (born 1974). His child from his second marriage with Sarah bint Faisal Al Subai'ai is Prince Saud. His children from his third marriage with Fahda bint Falah bin Sultan Al Hithalayn are Prince Mohammed, Prince Turki. Prince Khalid, Prince Nayif, Prince Bandar and Prince Rakan.

In August 2010, King Salman underwent spine surgery in the United States and remained out of the kingdom for recovery. He had one stroke and despite physiotherapy, his left arm does not work as well as his right. After his appointment as Crown Prince various analysts including Simon Henderson argued that he is suffering from dementia. In addition, he is believed to be suffering from Alzheimer's disease. 

His oldest son, Fahd bin Salman, died of heart failure at the age of 47 in July 2001.

Another son, Ahmad bin Salman, died after a heart attack in July 2002 at the age of 43. His second son, Sultan, became the first person of royal blood, the first Arab, and first Muslim to fly in outer space when he flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-51-G) in June 1985. He is the chairman of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiques (SCTA). Abdulaziz bin Salman, another son, has been the deputy minister of oil since 1995. Faisal bin Salman is the governor of Madinah Province. One of his younger sons, Mohammad, is his private advisor at the ministry of defense and at the Crown Prince Court. Turki bin Salman became the chairman of the SRMG in February 2013, replacing his elder brother Faisal bin Salman. Prince Salman was the closest brother to the late Crown Prince Sultan, having remained at his side during his constant illness and recovery in New York and Morocco, nearly from 2008 to 2011. Prince Sultan described him as "the prince of loyalty" in a letter sent to him. Prince Salman was also King Fahd's most trusted advisor during his reign. His legal counsel was William Jeffress, Jr., of US-based Baker Botts LLP, in a lawsuit filed by families of victims of 11 Sep terrorist attacks from 2002 to 2010.

Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia 

The Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia is the second most important position in Saudi Arabia, second to the King, and is his most likely successor.

Currently, the Crown Prince assumes power with the approval of the Allegiance Commission after he is appointed by the king. This system was introduced to the country in the Abdullah Era. In the absence of the king, an order is issued by the queen to have the prince manage the affairs of the state until the king's return. The order changes the prince's title temporarily from the Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister to Vice Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques until the return of the King to the Kingdom.

Crown Prince Under Al Malik Abdelaziz (Ibn Saud):
  1. Saud bin Abdelaziz (11 May 1933 - 9 Nov 1953)
Crown Prince Under Al Malik Saud bin Abdelaziz
  1. Feisal bin Abdelaziz (9 Nov 1953 - 2 Nov 1964)
Crown Prince Under Al Malik Feisal bin Abdelaziz
  1. Muhammad bin Abdelaziz (2 Nov 1964 - 29 March 1965) - resigned
  2. Khalid bin Abdelaziz (29 March 1965 - 27 March 1975)
Crown Prince Under Al Malik Khaled bin Abdelaziz
  1. Fahd bin Abdelaziz (25 March 1975 - 13 June 1982)
Crown Prince Under Al Malik Fahd bin Abdelaziz
  1. Abdullah bin Abdelaziz (13 June 1982 - 1 August 2005)
Crown Prince Under Al Malik Abdullah bin Abdelaziz
  1. Sultan bin Abdelaziz (1 Aug 2005 - 22 Oct 2011) - died in office
  2. Nayef bin Abdelaziz (22 Oct 2011 - 18 Jun 2012) - died in office
  3. Salman bin Abdelaziz (18 June 2012 - 23 Jan 2015)
Crown Prince Under Al Malik Salman bin Abdel Aziz
  1. Muqrin bin Abdelaziz (23 Jan 2015 - incumbent)
  2. Muhammad bin Nayef (23 Jan 2015 - incumbent) - Deputy Crown Prince)

Prince Muqrin bin Abdelaziz
(Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia)

Deputy Crown Prince

Saudi Arabia became a Kingdom in 1932. The Al Saud controlled vast parts of the region for two and a half centuries. The Saudi royalty collapsed twice in the 1800s due to discord over succession. In 1890s, the Al Sauds were completely supplanted by the ruling dynasty Al Rasheed — the Al Rashid. The kingdom began to fight to restore itself through King Abdulaziz and his capture of Riyadh in 1902. Ibn Saud conquered Arabia and formed alliances by marriage to members of its biggest tribes. This strengthened his power within the Al Sauds and expanded his legitimacy in Arabia. He presided over the discovery of oil in the region. He died in 1953.

Ibn Saud's first two successors were his two oldest surviving sons: Saud in 1953, and Faisal in 1964. The third son, Muhammad, was crown prince from 1964 to 1965 but then withdrew in favor of his full brother Khalid. Upon Khalid's succession in 1975, the new crown prince was Fahd, the oldest of the Sudairi Seven; this move bypassed Nasser and Saad, who had far less government experience than Fahd. Upon Fahd's succession in 1982, the new crown prince was Abdullah, again bypassing two others (Bandar and Musa'id). Abdullah ascended the throne in 2005 on his 81st birthday, and many other surviving sons of Ibn Saud were similarly elderly and many were bypassed as new crown princes were selected.

Salman became crown prince on 18 June 2012 after the deaths of two predecessors (Sultan and Nayef), and Muqrin was named deputy crown prince in 2014.  Muqrin is the youngest surviving son of Ibn Saud. Upon the death of King Abdullah on 23 January 2015, Salman ascended to the throne and Muqrin became crown prince.  At the same time, Muhammad bin Nayef, son of former crown prince Nayef, was appointed Deputy Crown Prince. Muhammad bin Nayef is the first grandson of Ibn Saud to enter the official line of succession.

At the time of Salman's succession as king in 2015, he was 79 years old, Crown Prince Muqrin was 69 years old, and Deputy Crown Prince Muhammad was 55 years old.

Prince Muhammad bin Nayef
(Deputy Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia)

 The main source of this entry is