Friday, April 11, 2014

Bilo Den Pencen Askar - Hang Mokhtar

TAJUK 304: TRAGEDI MH370


Hari ini, 7hb April 2014 adalah hari terakhir tempoh 30 hari kuasa bateri KOTA HITAM Flight MH370 yang dapat memancarkan isyarat kepada apa jua peralatan untuk mengesan kotak hitam tersebut.

Selepas 30 hari kaedah pencarian kotak hitam hanya boleh dilakukan secara manual atau visual. Sejak hari pertama pesawat MH370 dilaporkan hilang, berbagai-bagai andaian ditimbulkan namun sehingga kini satu pun belum dapat dibuktikan. Hanya penemuan kotak hitam yang mampu merungkai misteri dan persoalan kehilangan MH370.

Inilah dilemma yang dihadapi oleh semua negara peserta yang menganggotai operasi pencarian kotak hitam MH370. Kesukaran untuk mencari kotak hitam itu bukan sahaja keadaan fizikal Lautan Hindi yang cuacanya amat sukar diramalkan serta kedalaman serta keluasan kawasan pencarian TETAPI lokasi dimana pesawat itu yang dikatakan berakhir di selatan Lautan Hindi itu juga masih belum dapat di pastikan.

MH370: Kurang tujuh hari sebelum isyarat kotak hitam lenyap

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Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370/MAS370), also known as China Southern Airlines Flight 748 (CZ748) under codeshare is a scheduled flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to Beijing, China. On 8 March 2014, the Malaysian Airlines Boeing 777-200ER operating the flight disappeared with 227 passengers and 12 crew members on board. The cause remains unknown.

"Search teams hunting for the MH370 believed to have plunged into the ocean have about 30 days to find the cockpit recorders before the tracking signals they emit go dead. That is the battery life of the two recorders. One provides the last two hours of audio from the cockpit, and the other contains all of the flight data".

Garis masa yang menjelaskan tentang  kronoloogi peristiwa-peristiwa sekitar kehilangan pesawat MAS MH370 yang sehingga kini belum ditemui. 

  12:41 am : Penerbangan MAS) MH370 berlepas dari Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur ( KLIA). Kapalterbang Boeing 777-200 itu membawa 239 orang, termasuk dua bayi, dan 12 anak kapal. 38 orang daripadanya dilaporkan adalah rakyat Malaysia. 

2:40 am : Menurut MAS, penerbangan MH370 putus hubungan dengan Pusat Kawalan Udara Subang jam 2.40 pagi ini di ruang udara Vietnam. Pesawat itu belum memasuki ruang udara dikawal oleh China dan tidak membuat hubungan dengan pengawal udara di China. 

6:40 am: Penerbangan dijadualkan tiba di Beijing , China. 

10:15 am: laporan palsu tentang MH370 penerbangan membuat pendaratan kecemasan di Nanning , China diterbitkan. Didedahkan sebagai tidak benar dalam beberapa minit. 

11:55 am : laporan palsu pihak penerbangan Vietnam menerima isyarat pesawat diterbitkan. Laporan dibukti palsu dalam beberapa minit. 

12:00 pm : Dalam satu sidang akhbar di Sepang MAS Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif Kumpulan Ahmad Jauhari Yahya berkata, penumpang penerbangan MH370 adalah 14 negara yang berbeza. 

Senarai penumpang termasuklah 153 warga China, 38 rakyat Malaysia, 12 warga Indonesia, enam warga Australia , tiga Perancis, empat rakyat Amerika , dua dari Ukraine, New Zealand dan Kanada masing-masing setiap satu dari Rusia, Taiwan, Itali, Belanda dan Austria. Penerbangan ini adalah merupakan satu rancangan perkongsian dengan China Southern Airlines. 

12.30 pm: MAS berkata kali terakhir hubungan penerbangan MH370 adalah kira-kira 120 batu nautika timur Kota Baru di Laut China Selatan 

12:50 pm : Seorang pegawai penyelamat Vietnam menafikan ada isyarat pesawat Malaysia MH370 yang hilang telah dikesan. 1.00 pm : China menghantar dua kapal penyelamat maritim ke Laut China Selatan untuk membantu dalam operasi mencari dan menyelamat MH370 yang hilang. 

1:10 pm : Kedutaan Besar Malaysia di Beijing mengatur talian hotline bagi semua soalan yang berkaitan dengan kehilangan penerbangan MH370. Semua panggilan yang berkaitan dengan kejadian itu boleh ditujukan kepada +86 10 6532 2531 /2/ 3. 

1:30 pm: Satu kenyataan yang disiarkan di laman web rasmi kerajaan Vietnam berkata bahawa pesawat itu terputus hubungan berhampiran ruang udara wilayah Ca Mau apabila ia telah bersiap untuk memindahkan kawalan trafik udara ke Ho Chi Minh. Pemindahan itu tidak berlaku 

2:00 pm : Senarai penumpang semua kapalterbang didedahkan kepada umum. ke Ho Chi Minh 

2:20 pm : Laporan tidak Rasmi di media Vietnam dan China telah memetik Tentera Laut Vietnam sebagai berkata penerbangan MH370 berada di Laut China Selatan. Kapal Penyelamat telah dihantar ke kawasan itu, kata Al -Jazeera. 

3:00 pm : Tentera Laut Malaysia berkomunikasi dengan rakan sejawatannya dari Vietnam untuk mengesahkan laporan melihat bahawa bangkai penerbangan MH370 dieksani berhampiran sebuah pulau di sebelah selatan negara ini.

MAS meminta dua keluarga terdekat setiap penumpang berada di KLIA pada pukul 6 petang hari Sabtu. 

4:20 pm : Vietnam kerajaan mengesahkan bahawa penerbangan MH370 hilang di ruang udara Vietnam
Itulah permulaan tragedi MH370........ 

Sources from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia dated 12 March 14.

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370/MAS370), also known as China Southern Airlines Flight 748 (CZ748) under codeshare is a scheduled flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to Beijing, China. On 8 March 2014, the Malaysian Airlines Boeing 777-200ER operating the flight disappeared with 227 passengers and 12 crew members on board. The cause remains unknown.

An ongoing joint Search & Rescue effort, focusing on the Gulf of Thailand, Straits of Malacca, and the South China Sea, is being conducted by co-operating agencies of numerous national governments.

Two passengers boarded the aircraft using stolen passports (one Italian and one Austrian). Malaysian police reported on 11 March that one of the men was likely attempting to immigrate to Germany with a stolen passport purchased in Thailand. The 19-year-old Iranian's mother lives in Germany and was in contact with authorities. The second man was not identified by police but the BBC was informed that he was also an Iranian seeking to immigrate to Europe. A link with terrorism was called "not likely."

File:Malaysia Airlines MH370 path labelled.png

Incident

Origin and destination airports for MH370 and last known position over the Guld of Thailand.The flight departed from KLIA on 8 March at 00:41 Local time (UTC+8) and was scheduled to land at Beijing Capital International Airport at 06:30. It ascended to its assigned cruise altitude of 35,000 feet (10,600 m) and was travelling at 471 knots (542 mph; 872 km/h) when it ceased all communications and the transponder signal was lost. The aircraft's last known position was 6°55′15″N 103°34′43″E. This location corresponds to a navigational way point IGARI, at which the aircraft was due to alter its course slightly eastward. The aircraft was also expected to contact air traffic control in Ho Chi Minh City as it passed into Vietnamese airspace just north of the point where contact was lost.

Malaysia Airlines issued a media statement at 07:24 confirming that contact had been lost at 02:40 and that SAR operations had begun. It later emerged that Subang Air Traffic Control had lost contact with the aircraft at 01:22 and notified Malaysia Airlines at 02:40. Neither the crew nor the aircraft's onboard communication systems relayed a distress signal, indications of bad weather, or technical problems before vanishing from radar screens. The airline reported in its eleventh press release that all its aircraft are fitted with ACARS, a system that automatically transmits data about the status of the aircraft, but added "Nevertheless, there were no distress calls and no information was relayed." It is not clear whether or not this means no ACARS data was received, as the system routinely informs the ground station of important in-flight events.

Location

The search efforts generated multiple false leads. An admiral of the Vietnamese Navy reported that radar contact with the aircraft was last made over the Gulf of Thailand, but it transpired that this result corresponded to the loss of radar contact by Subang ATC rather than the discovery of a crash site.  Oil slicks were located off the coast of Vietnam on 8 and 9 March which were thought to have possibly arisen from the aircraft. Test results reported on 10 March indicated that the oil slicks did not contain aviation fuel. There were reports that a door or other fragment of the aircraft were found about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Tho Chu Island on 9 March. The following day, however, DCA Malaysia reported these claims were untrue; the floating material was not from an aircraft.

The RTN shifted its focus in the search away from the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea due to the request of its Malaysian counterpart, which is investigating the possibility the aircraft turned around and could have gone down in the Andaman Sea, near Thailand's border. The Chief of the RMAF, Gen Rodzali Daud, claimed that military recordings of radar signal did not exclude the possibility of the aircraft turning back on its flight path. The search radius has been increased from the original 20 nautical miles (37 km; 23 mi) of its last known position to 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi), and the area now covers the seas to the Straits of Malacca along the west coast of the Malay Peninsula; with both waters to the east of Malaysia in the South China Sea, and in the Straits of Malacca along Malaysia's west coast, are being searched.   Indonesian Navy has focused the search around the island of Penang in the Straits of Malacca, while the RNZAF maritime surveillance aircraft were heading to the Butterworth AFB to join the mission.

Response

In response to the incident, the Malaysian government mobilised the Civil Aviation department, air force, navy, Maritime Enforcement Agency, and requested international assistance from IADS and neighbouring states. Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, China, and the United States set aside territorial disputes to mount a search and rescue mission in the region's waters. The countries have despatched a total of 34 aircraft and 40 ships to the area. The French agency for investigating aircraft crashes, the Bureau d'Enquees et d'Analyses pour Securite de l'Aviation Civile (BEA), offered to help with any underwater search and recovery operation; and India also offered assistance.

Malaysia

The RMAF dispatched a CN235 transport aircraft, a B200T aircraft, four C130 military transport aircraft, two BD700 aircraft, four EC725 long-range tactical transport helicopters and two Army Aviation A109 helicopters. Six RMN vessels have also been dispatched, in addition to three MMEA (APMM) vessels to search the waters off its east coast in the South China Sea. Malaysia Airlines has also sent a team of caregivers and volunteers dubbed GoTeam to provide assistance towards family members of the passengers. Malaysia has also established a co-ordination centre at the National Disaster Control Centre (NDCC) in Pulau Meranti, Cyberjaya, to monitor the development of the situation.

On 9 March, the Malaysian transport minister said that the Malaysian intelligence agencies have been activated, while counter terrorism units in all relevant countries have been informed, adding that he has met with officers from the FBI in Malaysia.

Australian RAAF AP-3C Orions are participating in the search.

Australia. The Australian government provided two RAAF AP-3C Orion Maritime patrol craft to join the search and rescue operation. The first RAAF P-3C long-range maritime surveillance aircraft departed for the search from Darwin on 9 March.

China. Two Chinese warships, Jinggang and Mianyangm, were dispatched to assist in the search. Jinggang Shan has two helicopters, 30 medical personnel, ten divers, and 52 marines, as well as life-saving and underwater detection equipment. On the afternoon of 9 March, another two Chinese warships, Kunlun Shah dan Haikou were dispatched to the suspected site of the missing aircraft.  On 10 March, China adjusted the paths of ten orbiting defence satellites to help in the search of the missing flight.

Indonesia. The Embassy of Indonesia in Kuala Lumpur announced the country would send five ships to help Malaysian authorities in the search and rescue mission. The country has deployed its first two PC-40 fast patrol vessels, the KRI Matocra and KRI Krait, as well a IPTN NC-212 maritime patrol aircraft. Currently, Indonesia has deployed one corvette, which was on patrol around the island of Penang in the Straits of Malacca; and four rapid patrol vessels.

New Zealand. The NZ Government has deployed a RNZAF,  P-3K2 Orion to help with the search. The aircraft departed Auckland on 10 March, and is based at Butterworth Air Base in Penang along with the two Australian P-3 aircraft.

Philippines. The Philippine AFP Western Command has sent BRP Gregorio del Pilar, BRP Emilio Jacinto, BRP Apolinario Mabini, and a search-and-rescue aircraft to the South China Sea to help in the search efforts. 

RSS Steadfast is participating in the search.

Singapore. Within a day of the 777 going missing the Republic of Singapore Air Force assisted with a Lockheed C-130 Hercules.[42][43]Subsequently, two other C-130 Hercules were dispatched, with the Republic of Singapore Navy sending its Formidable-class frigateRSS Steadfast, with a Sikorsky S-70B Naval helicopter on board; and a submarine rescue ship (MV Swift Rescue) with divers on board; as well as the Victory-class corvette RSS Vigour.

Thailand. The Royal Thai Navy has also prepared to send three vessels and one aircraft to join the search and rescue mission. The Royal Thai Navy has dispatched a Super Lynx helicopter and a patrol ship to the Andaman Sea, west of Thailand, to help in the search. It has also put two other ships on standby in the Gulf of Thailand, awaiting a request for assistance from Malaysia.

USS Pinckney was deployed to the southern coast of Vietnam to assist in the search.

United States. The United States sent a P-3C Orion aircraft from Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, and diverted a guided missile destroyerUSS Pinckney carrying two Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawk helicopters which can be equipped for search and rescue. USNS John Ericsson is en route to the scene to provide fuel and logistics replenishment. The US also dispatched a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) team in advance, ready to start work immediately should the aircraft wreckage be discovered. The US Navy also ordered a second destroyer, the USS Kidd, to the scene.

The Vietnam Coast Guard CASA C-212-400.

Vietnam. The Vietnamese participated with three Antonov An-26s, two CASA C-212, one DHC-6 Twin Otter, two Mil Mi-171, and seven ships from the Navy (HQ-954, HQ-627), Coast Guard (CSB-2001, CSB-2003), Fisheries Control (KN-774), and Maritime Search & Rescue Coordination Centre (SAR 413).

Aircraft

The B777 is generally regarded by aviation experts as having an "almost flawless" safety record, one of the best of any commercial aircraft. Since its first commercial flight in June 1995, there have only been two previous serious accidents. In January 2008, 47 passengers were injured when ice crystals in the fuel system of British Airways Flight 38 caused it to lose power and crash-land just short of the runway at London Heathrow Airport. In July 2013, Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crash-landed on final approach to San Francisco Int Airport. Three passengers died and 181 were injured as a result of that accident. Both aircraft were damaged beyond repair. 

The cockpit of 9M-MRO, the missing aircraft, in 2004.

The aircraft was a Boeing 777-2H6ER, serial number 28420, registration 9M-MRO. The 404th Boeing 777 produced, it first flew on 14 May 2002, and was delivered new to Malaysia Airlines on 31 May 2002. The aircraft was powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent 892 engines. According to the airline, it had accumulated 53,460 hours and 7,525 cycles in service. 9M-MRO had not previously been involved in any major incidents, however, a minor incident while taxiing at Shanghai Pudong International Airport in August 2012 resulted in significant damage to one of its wingtips, which broke off after striking the tail of another airliner. Its last maintenance check was in February 2014.

Passengers and Crew

Malaysia Airlines released the names and nationalities of the 227 passengers and 12 crew, based on the flight manifest. 

File:Boeing 777-2H6-ER, Malaysia Airlines AN0561319.jpg

Crew

All crew onboard were Malaysian. The captain was 53-year-old Zaharie bin Ahmad Shah from Penang, who joined Malaysian Airlines in 1981 and had 18,365 hours flying experience. Zaharie was also an examiner qualified to conduct simulator tests for pilots. The first officer was 27-year-old Fariq bin Ab Hamid, an employee of Malaysia Airlines since 2007, with 2,763 flying hours. Fariq recently switched to flying Boeing 777-200 aircraft after completing his simulator training.



Passengers

The majority of the passengers—152 in total—were Chinese citizens. Thirty-eight passengers and all twelve members of the crew were Malaysian. The remaining passengers came from twelve different countries. The Chinese passengers included a group of nineteen artists with six family members and four staff, returning from a calligraphy exhibition of their work in Kuala Lumpur. Twenty of the passengers were employees of Freescale Semicondustor based in Austin, Texas. Twelve of these employees are from Malaysia and eight from China.

In its press releases, Malaysia Airlines stated that it would bear the expenses of bringing family members of the passengers of the missing aircraft to Kuala Lumpur and providing them with accommodation, medical care and support. The Chinese and Malaysian governments have been criticised for the lack of information updates to the families and for the duration of the unsuccessful search. In the meantime, the airline offered an ex-gratia condolence payment of ¥31,000 ($5,000) to families for each victim.

Passengers using false identities

At least two of the passengers were travelling with passports stolen from citizens of European countries. An Austrian listed in the manifest had reported his passport stolen in 2012 and an Italian listed in the manifest had reported his passport stolen in August 2013; both were stolen in Phuket, Thailand, a popular tourist destination. This came to light when attempts were made to locate their next of kin; both men have been confirmed safe.

The tickets purchased for the holders of those stolen passports were booked through CSA, which had a code share agreement for flight 370. The two one-way tickets were bought at the same time and issued by a travel agent in Pattaya. Thailand, two days before the flight. The two itineraries began in Kuala Lumpur and continued via Beijing to Amsterdam. From Amsterdam, the itinerary for the Italian passport holder ended at Copenhagen and that of the Austrian passport holder continued to Frankfurt. It was reported that an Iranian client of the agency—Kazem Ali—had ordered the tickets via telephone ostensibly for friends he said wanted to return home to Europe and someone paid cash for the tickets. Ali had only asked for the cheapest route to Europe when booking and did not mention specifically the Kuala Lumpur–Beijing route.  According to a Thai police chief, "Mr Ali had a relationship with the travel agency and had booked through them previously, very possibly for Iranian nationals." Southeast Asia is a frequent transit point for illegal migrants and asylum seekers.

Malaysia's Home Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi criticised Malaysian immigration officials for failing to stop the passengers travelling on the stolen European passports. Interpol stated that both passports were listed on its database of lost and stolen passports, but that no check had been made against its database, noting that very few countries consistently use the database.

On 10 March, Malaysia's Civil Aviation DG Azaharuddin Abdul Rahman reported that investigators had identified one of the people travelling with a stolen passport, but did not disclose any details about the person's nationality or identity, except that he was not Malaysian. He also indicated that one of the men was black and retracted an earlier statement that they were Asian. No connection between the stolen passports and the aircraft's disappearance has been reported. On 11 March, BBC reported that one of the passengers travelling on a stolen passport was a 19-year-old Iranian travelling to Germany to seek asylum. His mother, who was already in Germany, was expecting her son to arrive in Frankfurt. According to IGP Khalid Abu Bakar, the young Iranian was "not likely to be a member of a terrorist group".

Sumber: wikipedia.com


KENYATAAN AKHBAR PERDANA MENTERI PADA 
15 MAC 2014

PM NAJIB RAZAK’S PRESS STATEMENT ON MH370 - 15th MARCH 2014

Seven days ago Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 disappeared. We realise this is an excruciating time for the families of those on board. No words can describe the pain they must be going through. Our thoughts and our prayers are with them.

I have been appraised of the on-going search operation round the clock. At the beginning of the operation, I ordered the search area to be broadened; I instructed the Malaysian authorities to share all relevant information freely and transparently with the wider investigation team; and I requested that our friends and allies join the operation. As of today, 14 countries, 43 ships and 58 aircraft are involved in the search. I wish to thank all the governments for their help at such a crucial time.

Since day one, the Malaysian authorities have worked hand-in-hand with our international partners – including neighbouring countries, the aviation authorities and a multinational search force – many of whom have been here on the ground since Sunday. 

We have shared information in real time with authorities who have the necessary experience to interpret the data. We have been working nonstop to assist the investigation. And we have put our national security second to the search for the missing plane.

It is widely understood that this has been a situation without precedent. 

We have conducted search operations over land, in the South China Sea, the Straits of Malacca, the Andaman Sea and the Indian Ocean. At every stage, we acted on the basis of verified information, and we followed every credible lead. Sometimes these leads have led nowhere.

There has been intense speculation. We understand the desperate need for information on behalf of the families and those watching around the world. But we have a responsibility to the investigation and the families to only release information that has been corroborated. And our primary motivation has always been to find the plane. 

In the first phase of the search operation, we searched near MH370’s last known position, in the South China Sea. At the same time, it was brought to our attention by the Royal Malaysian Air Force that, based on their primary radar, an aircraft – the identity of which could not be confirmed – made a turn back. The primary radar data showed the aircraft proceeding on a flight path which took it to an area north of the Straits of Malacca.

Given this credible data, which was subsequently corroborated with the relevant international authorities, we expanded the area of search to include the Straits of Malacca and, later, to the Andaman Sea.

Early this morning I was briefed by the investigation team – which includes the FAA, NTSB, the AAIB, the Malaysian authorities and the Acting Minister of Transport – on new information that sheds further light on what happened to MH370.

Based on new satellite information, we can say with a high degree of certainty that the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) was disabled just before the aircraft reached the East coast of peninsular Malaysia. Shortly afterwards, near the border between Malaysian and Vietnamese air traffic control, the aircraft’s transponder was switched off.

From this point onwards, the Royal Malaysian Air Force primary radar showed that an aircraft which was believed – but not confirmed – to be MH370 did indeed turn back. It then flew in a westerly direction back over peninsular Malaysia before turning northwest. Up until the point at which it left military primary radar coverage, these movements are consistent with deliberate action by someone on the plane.

Today, based on raw satellite data that was obtained from the satellite data service provider, we can confirm that the aircraft shown in the primary radar data was flight MH370. After much forensic work and deliberation, the FAA, NTSB, AAIB and the Malaysian authorities, working separately on the same data, concur.

According to the new data, the last confirmed communication between the plane and the satellite was at 8:11AM Malaysian time on Saturday 8th March. The investigations team is making further calculations which will indicate how far the aircraft may have flown after this last point of contact. This will help us to refine the search.
Due to the type of satellite data, we are unable to confirm the precise location of the plane when it last made contact with the satellite.

However, based on this new data, the aviation authorities of Malaysia and their international counterparts have determined that the plane’s last communication with the satellite was in one of two possible corridors: a northern corridor stretching approximately from the border of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan to northern Thailand, or a southern corridor stretching approximately from Indonesia to the southern Indian ocean. The investigation team is working to further refine the information.

In view of this latest development the Malaysian authorities have refocused their investigation into the crew and passengers on board. Despite media reports that the plane was hijacked, I wish to be very clear: we are still investigating all possibilities as to what caused MH370 to deviate from its original flight path.

This new satellite information has a significant impact on the nature and scope of the search operation. We are ending our operations in the South China Sea and reassessing the redeployment of our assets. We are working with the relevant countries to request all information relevant to the search, including radar data. 

As the two new corridors involve many countries, the relevant foreign embassies have been invited to a briefing on the new information today by the Malaysian Foreign Ministry and the technical experts. I have also instructed the Foreign Ministry to provide a full briefing to foreign governments which had passengers on the plane. This morning, Malaysia Airlines has been informing the families of the passengers and crew of these new developments.

Clearly, the search for MH370 has entered a new phase. Over the last seven days, we have followed every lead and looked into every possibility. For the families and friends of those involved, we hope this new information brings us one step closer to finding the plane




....
Investigation

Boeing has announced that it is assembling a team of experts to provide technical assistance to investigators, in accordance with ICAO protocols. In addition, the United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) announced in an 8 March press release that a team of investigators had been sent along with technical advisers from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to offer assistance in the investigation. The country that will lead the investigation will not be determined until the missing aircraft is found. 


The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation has deployed technical experts and agents to investigate the disappearance. However, a senior US law enforcement official clarified that FBI agents were not sent to Malaysia. United States and Malaysian officials are reviewing the entire passenger manifest in addition to the two passengers who were confirmed as possessing stolen passports.

International participation
On 8 March, although a formal (ICAO-sanctioned) investigation had not yet started, Boeing announced that it was assembling a team of experts to provide technical assistance to investigators, in accordance with ICAO protocols. The United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) soon thereafter announced it was sending its own team of investigators with technical advisers from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
The United States FBI had already deployed technical experts and agents to investigate the disappearance. A senior US law enforcement official clarified that FBI agents had not been sent to Malaysia. By 17 March the investigation was also being assisted by INTERPOL and other relevant international law enforcement authorities according to the Malaysian government.
On 6 April Malaysia announced it has set up three ministerial committees to help co-ordinate the search, and a new investigation team including members from Australia, China, the US, the UK, and France, being led according to the ICAO standards by "an independent investigator in charge". The investigation into the aircraft's disappearance is Malaysia's responsibility; Australia is co-ordinating the ocean search. Australia, the US, UK, and China have agreed to be "accredited representatives" of the investigation.

Possible passenger involvement

Two men identified on the manifest, an Austrian and an Italian, had reported their passports stolen in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Interpol stated that both passports were listed on its database of lost and stolen passports, and that no check had been made against its database. Malaysia's Home Minister, criticised his country's immigration officials for failing to stop the passengers travelling on the stolen European passports.  The two one-way tickets purchased for the holders of the stolen passports were booked through China Southern AirlinesIt was reported that an Iranian had ordered the cheapest tickets to Europe via telephone in Bangkok, Thailand. The tickets were paid for in cash. The two passengers were later identified as Iranian men, one aged 19 and the other 29, who had entered Malaysia on 28 February using valid Iranian passports. The head of Interpol said the organisation was "inclined to conclude that it was not a terrorist incident". The two men were believed to be asylum seekers. United States and Malaysian officials were reviewing the backgrounds of every passenger named on the manifest. On 18 March the Chinese government announced that it had checked all of the Chinese citizens on the aircraft and ruled out the possibility that any were potential hijackers.

Crew and cargo

Police searched the homes of the pilot and co-pilot,  on suspicion that those in the cockpit had been responsible for the aircraft's disappearance. However, no evidence had emerged to support this theory. After the FBI reconstructed the deleted data from the pilot's home flight simulator, the Malaysian government spokesman indicated that "nothing sinister" had been found on it.
MAS has not disclosed its cargo manifest, as Malaysian police are conducting their own investigations. On 17 March, Malaysia Airlines chief executive, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, indicated only that the aircraft was carrying 3 to 4 tonnes/tons of mangosteens and said that nothing it transported was dangerous. Three days later, he also confirmed that potentially flammable batteries, identified as lithium-ion, were on board, adding that all cargo was "packed as recommended by the ICAO", checked several times, and deemed to meet regulations.
On 2 April Khalid Abu Bakar, Malaysia's Police Inspector-General, said that as part of its ongoing criminal investigation, more than 170 interviews had been conducted, including with family members of the pilots and crew. Khalid said that the provenance and destination of all cargo, including the mangosteens and in-flight meals, were being investigated to rule out sabotage as a cause.

Criticism and Response

Public communication from Malaysian officials regarding the loss of the flight was initially beset with confusion. The New York Times wrote that the Malaysian government and the airline released imprecise, incomplete, and sometimes inaccurate information, with civilian officials sometimes contradicting military leaders. Malaysian officials were also criticised after the persistent release of contradictory information, most notably regarding the last point and time of contact with the aircraft. 

Vietnam temporarily scaled back its search operations after the country's Deputy Transport Minister cited a lack of communication from Malaysian officials despite requests for more information. China, through the official Xinhua News Agency, said that the Malaysian government ought to take charge and conduct the operation with greater transparency, echoed by the Chinese Foreign Ministrydays later.

On 14 March, Malaysia Airlines retired the MH370/MH371 flight number pair for the Kuala Lumpur–Beijing–Kuala Lumpur route, replacing them with MH318 and MH319 respectively. 


On 25 March, Chinese president Xi Jinping said he was sending a special envoy to Kuala Lumpur to consult with the Malaysian government over the missing aircraft. The same day, around two hundred family members of the Chinese passengers protested outside the Malaysian embassy in Beijing. Relatives who had arrived in Kuala Lumpur after the announcement continued with their protesting, accusing Malaysia of hiding the truth and harbouring the murderer. They also wanted an apology for the Malaysian government's poor initial handling of the disaster and its "premature" conclusion of loss, drawn without physical evidence. An op-ed for China Daily said that Malaysia was not wholly to be blamed for its poor handling of such a "bizarre and unprecedented crisis", and appealed to Chinese people not to allow emotions to prevail over evidence and rationality. The Chinese ambassador to Malaysia rebuked the "radical and irresponsible opinions" of the Chinese relatives, and said that they "[did] not represent the views of Chinese people and the Chinese government". The ambassador also strongly criticised Western media for having "published false news, stoked conflict and even spread rumours" to the detriment of relatives and of Sino-Malaysian relations. 

Timeline of events

Date (UTC)
Category
Event
7 March
Media
Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) Malaysia and Malaysia Airlines confirms Subang ATC outside Kuala Lumpur lost contact with Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 370 on 8 March 2014 at 02:40 local time (on 7 March 2014 at 18:40 UTC), later corrected to 01:30 local time (17:30 UTC) located at  6°33′05″N 103°20′39″E
Search
Malaysian and Vietnamese authorities jointly searching in the Gulf of Thailand area; China dispatches two maritime rescue ships to the South China Sea.
8 March
Search
An international search and rescue mission mobilised, focusing on Gulf of Thailand, SCS, Natuna Islands archipelago, Malaysia, Vietnam, China, Singapore and Indonesia.
Media
MAS releases passenger manifest of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370.
Two men from Austria and Italy, listed among the passengers on MH370, are not in fact on board. Officials in both countries say that each had his passport stolen.
9 March
Search
The search zone expanded, to include areas in the Straits of Malaccaas military radar tracking indicates aircraft might have turned west from its flight plan and flight path. 
Investigation
INTERPOL confirms that at least two passengers are found to have been travelling on stolen passports registered in its databases.
10 March
Search
Ten Chinese satellites deployed in the search. Oil slicks on the surface of the South China Sea test negative for jet fuel.
Media
Malaysia Airlines announces it will give US$5,000 to the relatives of each passenger.
11 March
Investigation
INTERPOL says that two false identities are not linked to the disappearance.
Media
China activates the Internatonal Charter on Space and Major Disasters (ICSMD). 
12 March
Search
Chinese satellite images of possible debris from Flight 370 in the South China Sea at  6.7°N 105.63°E released, but surface search finds no wreckage. Malaysian government receives Inmarsat info that Flight 370 pinged for hours after ACARS went off-line.
Media
Chinese government criticises Malaysia for inadequate answers regarding Flight 370.
Investigation
RMAF Chief says that an aircraft plotted on military radar crossed the Malaysian states of Pahang, Terengganu, Selangor, Perak and Penang after changing course, towards a way point called GIVAL at 2:15 local time (18:15 UTC, 7 March), 200 miles (320 km) northwest of Penang Island off Malaysia's west coast. It followed standard aviation corridors. Search and rescue efforts being stepped up in Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal. 
14 March
Investigation
Investigation concludes that Flight 370 was still under human control after it lost ground control contact.
Media
MAS retires the MH370/MH371 flight number pair.
15 March
Search
New phase of multi-national search and rescue operations within two areas in the northern and southern "corridors". Twenty-six countries involved, among the northern corridor countries are Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, China, Thailand, including SCS and Gulf of Thailand. The southern corridor covers Indonesia, Australia, and the Indian Ocean.
India continues search for Malaysia Airlines MH370; Malaysia ends hunt in South China Sea.
Investigation
Malaysian police search the homes of both of the aircraft's pilots.
CTBTO analysts report no clues found from seismic shocks and sound wave monitoring around the world.
16 March
Search
Twenty-five countries are involved in the search. India ends its search  in the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.
17 March
Search
Search area reported by Malaysian authorities to be 2,000,000 square miles (5,200,000 km2), as a belt beneath the last possible arc position stretching from Kazakhstan over Indonesia to the southern part of the Indian Ocean. Australia pledges to lead a search from Sumatra to the southern Indian Ocean.
18 March
Search
China starts a search operation in its own territory. Australia conducts an aerial search through waters West and North of Cocos and Christmas Islands (close to Indonesia). Australia also conducts its first aerial search of the southern Indian Ocean, roughly 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) South-west of Perth. 
19 March
Search
Australia searches the southern Indian Ocean with three aircraft and three merchant ships, transiting through a slightly revised search area of 305,000 square kilometres (118,000 sq mi) about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) South-west of Perth.
20 March
Search
Prime minister of Australia, Tony Abbott, told parliament that the "new and credible information" had emerged from expert analysis of satellite imagery. Five aircraft and a fourth (merchant) ship are dispatched to  44°03′02″S 91°13′27″E.
22 March
Search
Chinese satellite image taken on 18 March shows a possible object measuring 22.5 by 13 metres (74 by 43 ft) at  44°57′30″S 90°13′40″E, approximately 3,170 kilometres (1,970 mi) west of Perth and 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the earlier sighting, but did not confirm the object's nature.
24 March
Media
Prime Minister of Malaysia announces that Flight 370 is assumed to have gone down in the southern Indian Ocean; Malaysia Airlines states to families that it assumes "beyond reasonable doubt" there are no survivors.
Search
Search area narrowed to the southern part of the Indian Ocean west and southwest of Australia. The northern search corridor (northwest of Malaysia) and the northern half of the southern search corridor (the waters between Indonesia and Australia) are definitively ruled out. An Australian search aircraft spots two objects at sea, 1,550 miles (2,490 km) southwest of Perth. 
26 March
Search
French satellite images captured on 23 March show 122 possible pieces of debris at  44°41′24″S 90°25′19.20″E,  44°41′38.45″S90°29′31.20″E and  44°40′10.20″S 90°36′25.20″E.
Media
UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has a team of investigators from other states as part of an international effort supporting the Malaysian authorities in accordance with ICAO code. 
27 March
Search
The search area narrows to roughly 76,000 square kilometres (29,000 sq mi). Thai and Japanese satellite images, captured 24-26 March show floating objects 200 kilometres (120 mi) south of the French observations. Five ships from Australia and China are engaged.
28 March
Search
Search shifts to a new 319,000-square-kilometre (123,000 sq mi) area 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) northeast of the previous search area.
29 March
Media
Malaysia announces that an international panel will be formed under United Nations protocols to investigate the MH370 incident
30 March
Media
Prime Minister of Australia announces newly formed Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) headed by Angus Houston. Military air crew from Australia, China, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States are actively engaged.
5 April
Search
Chinese patrol ship Haixun 01 detects a pulse signal at  25°S 101°E. Ocean Shield also picks up two longer lasting signals.
8 April
Search
Ocean Shield picks up two further signals 3,500 metres deep, close to those of 5 April.
10 April
Search
Another signal is acquired by a sonobuoy deployed near the Ocean Shield signal acquisitions. JACC declares the contact unlikely to be related to MH370.
11 April
Search
Tony Abbott the Australian Prime Minister, stated in a press conference in China that the four original pings picked up by the Ocean Shield are very likely to have been emitted from the plane's black box.